1. There are five structural isomers of the molecular formula C5H10 which are alkenes. The graphical formulae of two of these isomers are given. Isomer 1 Isomer 2




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Tên1. There are five structural isomers of the molecular formula C5H10 which are alkenes. The graphical formulae of two of these isomers are given. Isomer 1 Isomer 2
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1. There are five structural isomers of the molecular formula C5H10 which are alkenes. The graphical formulae of two of these isomers are given.



Isomer 1 Isomer 2

Draw the graphical formulae of two of the remaining alkene structural isomers.


Isomer 3 Isomer 4

(Total 2 marks)


2. The alkanes form an homologous series of hydrocarbons. The first four straight-chain alkanes are shown below.

methane CH4
ethane CH3CH3
propane CH3CH2CH3
butane CH3CH2CH2CH3

(a) (i) State what is meant by the term hydrocarbon.

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(ii) Give the general formula for the alkanes.

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(iii) Give the molecular formula for hexane, the sixth member of the series.

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(3)

(b) Each homologous series has its own general formula. State two other characteristics of an homologous series.

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(2)

(c) Branched-chain structural isomers are possible for alkanes which have more than three carbon atoms.

(i) State what is meant by the term structural isomers.

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(ii) Name the two isomers of hexane shown below.



Name ............................................................................................................



Name ............................................................................................................

(iii) Give the structures of two other branched-chain isomers of hexane.

Isomer 3 Isomer 4


(6)

(d) A hydrocarbon, W, contains 92.3% carbon by mass. The relative molecular mass of W is 78.0

(i) Calculate the empirical formula of W.

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(ii) Calculate the molecular formula of W.

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(4)

(Total 15 marks)


3. Four isomers with the formula C4H9OH are given below.

Isomer

Name

CH3CH2CH2CH2OH

butan-1-ol



2-methylpropan-2-ol













(i) Complete the naming of the isomers in the table above.

(ii) Name the type of isomerism shown by these four isomers.

.....................................................................................................................................

(Total 3 marks)


4. (a) (i) Name the process used to separate petroleum into fractions.

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(ii) Give the molecular formula for an alkane with nine carbon atoms.

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(iii) Write an equation for the complete combustion of the alkane C11H24

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(iv) Write an equation for the incomplete combustion of C11H24 to produce carbon and water only.

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(4)

(b) Alkenes can be produced by cracking the naphtha fraction obtained from petroleum.

(i) Write an equation for the thermal cracking of one molecule of C10 H22 to give one molecule of propene and one molecule of an alkane only.

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(ii) Draw the structure of the chain isomer of but-1-ene.


(2)


(c) The alkanes and the alkenes are examples of homologous series of compounds.
One feature of an homologous series is the gradual change in physical properties as the relative molecular mass increases. State two other general features of an homologous series of compounds.

Feature 1 ....................................................................................................................

................………......................................................................…...............................

Feature 2 ....................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

(2)

(Total 8 marks)



Plantsbrook School

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1. There are five structural isomers of the molecular formula C5H10 which are alkenes. The graphical formulae of two of these isomers are given. Isomer 1 Isomer 2 icon1. (a) When fractions from crude oil are cracked, ethane and ethene can be formed. Draw the structural formulae of ethane and ethene. Show all

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